Substance that destroys the fungi and yeasts responsible for mycosis.


Diversity of living species (micro-organisms, plants, animals) present in an environment.


A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention.


Refers to microorganisms that colonize the organism (usually the skin or mucous membranes) without causing disease. Commensal bacteria can become pathogenic to the immunocompromised individual.

Digestive tract

Ensures the assimilation and processing of food. It comprises a series of organs that make up the digestive tract and associated organs such as the liver, gallbladder and pancreas.


Imbalance of the microbiota. It results from changes in the composition of the bacterial flora, and may be associated with a number of diseases.


Basic ecological unit formed by an environment (biotope) and by all the species (biocenosis) that live, feed and reproduce there.


Intestinal bacterial signature. This is a specific group of intestinal bacterial composition in humans.


State of a microbiota considered at equilibrium. It is an ecological situation where a favourable microbiota and a healthy host coexist.


Acronym for Fermentable Oligosaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides And Polyols. FODMAP refers to a group of short-chain carbohydrates found in certain foods and fed by bacteria in the colon.

The purpose of the FODMAP diet is to :

  • Limit foods that are sources of FODMAP.
  • Favour foods low in fermentable carbohydrates.

Healthy carrier

A clinically healthy subject who carries pathogenic germs.

Immune function

Defense of the body by a set of cells against infections. When it is invaded by a foreign organism (virus, bacteria) or foreign molecules (e.g. pollen), the immune system reacts quickly to get rid of it.


A subject whose immune system is weakened.

Shannon’s Index

An index to measure biodiversity.


Acronym for “Inflammatory Bowel Diseases”, which includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. They are characterised by inflammation of the wall of part of the digestive tract, linked to hyperactivity of the digestive immune system.


Set of phenomena that defend the body against aggression (allergy, infection, injury …) that can manifest themselves in various signs such as heat, pain, redness …


Which is characterized or caused by inflammation.


Acronym for lipopolysaccharide, a molecule consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide. It is an essential component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

Metagenomic analysis

Study of the microbiota via the study of the genomes of different populations of microorganisms living in a given environment.

Metabolic functions

A set of chemical reactions that take place in the cells of an organism, based on chemical constituents supplied to the organism by food and under the action of specific catalysts.


Organic waste from living matter. A metabolite is a chemical compound synthesized during a phase of metabolism.


Microscopic living organism (invisible to the naked eye), such as bacteria, viruses or unicellular fungi (yeast) that plays an essential role in the balance of ecosystems.


An infection is said to be nosocomial if it is contracted in hospital and is not directly related to the condition for which the patient is hospitalized.


A bacterium normally present in the body without affecting it, but which can cause disease as a result of a decrease in the body’s defences.


Which can cause illness.


Branch which is the first level of classification in each kingdom.


Complex natural carbohydrate formed by the condensation of several molecules of simple sugars.


Metabolite (organic acids, enzymes, carbon substrates) produced by a living bacterium, which could help rebalance the composition of the microbiota.


A non-digestible substance that serves as a substrate for good bacteria in the colon and has a beneficial effect on health.


Live microorganisms (bacteria or yeast) which, when ingested in sufficient quantities, can have a beneficial effect on health by improving the intestinal flora.

Shannon’s Index

An index to measure biodiversity.


Acronym for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth. SIBO is defined as excessive growth of bacteria in the small intestine. Normally, the majority of bacteria are found in the colon.


Science of classification of living things.


An anatomical term defining a set of organs that constitute an apparatus. Examples include the digestive or gastrointestinal tract, genital tract, optic tract.

Urinary tract

Part of the anatomy that allows the body to get rid of impurities. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra.